Friday, 18 August 2017

Save the Date... Sunday 8th October 2017 - Bee-keeping Workshop for Beginners

We are now taking bookings for our first workshop for the season on Sunday 8th October 2017.
A fun day of learning and interacting with a small group of beginner bee-keepers in an informal and friendly atmosphere.

Morning tea and lunch is provided.

Meeting new friends and networking at lunch time.

Some folks are more popular with the bees than others!

 
We will start the day by learning the ins and outs of the hive and equipment.



Then we get into some hands-on bee keeping projects.
Bee suits and equipment will be available to purchase on the day.

This one day course for beginners will cover all the basic aspects of bee keeping to give you the knowledge and confidence to get started with keeping your own hives.

This is what some of the participants said about the workshops from last year;
 " Did the bee keeping course today
Absolutely
fascinating, there was an overflowing fountain of information and experience from Brian & Sally . Really worth the day to do. I highly recommend it even if you don't want to have bees but are just interested in the topic. Great day" (Pip)
"Absolutely fabulous day. We have hives but learnt so much. Good networking with others. Sally and Brian are beautiful, caring and sharing people." (Sue)

9am - 4pm-ish (depending on the day, it may be a 5pm finish)
Cost: $100 per person, includes morning tea and lunch
To reserve a place please contact.... Sally or Brian at Jembella Farm  
Email - sallyfennessy@gmx.com  
Text - 0473 493 413

Click here to look back at  Bee keeping Workshop Nov 2016
and  Bee keeping workshop Jan 2017

Thursday, 17 August 2017

That List


I don't think I'm the only person who, all too frequently, finds herself so overwhelmed by the "To Do" list, that nothing on the list gets done at all because I'm not sure where to start, or I'm not really in the mood for doing any of them.
Of course the routine daily tasks are always done, otherwise there would be hungry animals, no food on the table, and we would be living in filth. No it's not those tasks that I'm talking about here.
My list goes something like this;
     Write Blog
     Take bee suits to the tailor for zip repairs
     Make appointment to have my Tax done
     Finish next Grass Roots article for submission
     Design & print new jam jar labels for the Farmgate shop at our front gate
     Pot up new plants for selling in the farmgate shop
There are many more things on my list, but you get the gist!
So! Here goes, I'm working through my list and starting at the top.. Write a Blog Post..! And gee it feels good and virtuous to be making a start. aaahh!
I may even pot up a few plants later when the rain stops, just so I feel doubly good as I'm ticking off my accomplishments for the day, when dozing off to sleep tonight.
My poor blog has been neglected lately. I think of so many marvelously interesting things to write about when I'm out in the garden, or working with the sheep or cows, or whipping up a meal that just happens to turn out surprisingly well. But, when I find the time to sit at the computer, it's all gone, the brain is frizzled, the cupboard is bare.
So today, please bare (bear?) with me as I try to catch up on what's been going on around here.

Pumpkins
It must have been May or June that I picked the pumpkins that grew at the bottom of the vegetable garden last summer/autumn growing season. The photo at the top of the page shows the various shapes, sizes and colours of the harvest, and yet the seeds I planted were all Queensland Blue!!
This would have to be the cheapest and easiest staple vegetable for anyone to grow who has the space for rambling pumpkin vines that have a mind of their own and grow like Triffids. These were grown from the grey water that gravity feeds down to the orchard and pumpkin patch, so no cost at all, apart from my energy to move the grey water hose around daily.
Now we're enjoying them roasted with almost every evening meal, mashed in cakes and breads, in soups and stews,  roasted caramelized pieces in green salads with home made egg and oil mayonnaise.

In the kitchen
 
 
Tis the season for comfort food, and nothing beats thick chunks of sourdough dipped into a hot bowl of soup.

Three of the seven bottles that live on the kitchen bench for these few months of bottle feeding lambs. My days are punctuated by feeds, but it's getting easier with the bigger lambs requiring only two daily feeds now. The two babies (Peewee and Trevor) are still getting a lunchtime feed, so anytime I might need to go out, needs to be arranged between feeds. Oh, and the update on Trevor.. after eight days of painstakingly dripping milk down his throat, he suddenly started suckling hungrily from the bottle. There were hoots of relief and jumps for joy last Sunday!

A nest of eggs was found under one of the big trees at the edge of the chicken enclosure so I "floated" them to see if they were still fresh enough to use for baking. None floated so they were all OK to use, thankfully.

The farmgate shop does a good trade in biscuits, so I need to make a batch of these twice each week, and sometimes more often.

I was gifted some limes, so I put them with some of our lemons to make a big batch of marmalade.

A few small jars to go into the farmgate shop.
Today I'm making orange marmalade, so there should be enough to last us until next citrus season. I love it on sourdough toast, but it's also very good in casseroles, fruit cakes, puddings, and home made icecream.
And speaking of icecream, Cheryl at A Simply Good Life has posted a Mary Berry recipe for icecream. I made a trial batch and will stick to this recipe from now onward.  Smooth, creamy, and economical, but deliciously luscious with a good mouthfeel.

Farm stuff

 We "marked" the larger lambs on Saturday. This is ear tagging, vaccinating, and putting elastrator rings on tails, and in the case of the males, elastrator rings on their scrotum. It's a stressful time for both ewes and lambs, so we get it done as smoothly and as fast as possible. It does cause them some pain for the first thirty minutes, so we try to have them back with their mums as soon as possible so they can have comfort suckles.
Good organization is the key. Have all the equipment in good working order, and work methodically. After we draft off the ewes, Brian does the job, while I re-load the ear tag gun, load the elastrator gadget, hand him the syringe, and write the score of boys and girls.

Bees

Bee season is just around the corner, so with a 20C day on Sunday, we drove to all of our four apiaries to check every hive.  Notes were taken by me, the assistant, as to the health of each hive and what is required in the next few weeks.
Extra brood boxes will be added, excluders will be inserted, some of the nucleus hives will be transferred into full size boxes, supers will be added to the strongest hives. Overall, we're really pleased with how well they have all wintered over, with a loss of only one nuc hive.
Our customers have been keeping us busy during the week with their orders for boxes, frames, and various bee equipment as they too prepare for the coming season.

Dogs

 After a few warm days in the high teens, we're now back to severe wintry weather with rain, which is very much appreciated. Alan loves his coat, but Meg is always on the go, has thicker fur and sleeps inside so no coat for her.
So now, hours later and after many interruptions, I'm just going to click on 'Publish' and tick this one job on my list.
Cheers to you and thanks for coming over for a read.










Tuesday, 8 August 2017

Oops.. Official update and What comes first? The chicken or the egg?

Well I don't quite know what happened with the rough draft that I tapped out last night. Just goes to show that my senses are obviously impaired by my blurry lamb brain. I thought I had clicked on the "Save" icon, but there we are, the great blogging master in the sky overruled and did a "Publish" instead.
I'd planned on finishing it off tonight with today's progress, but I'm afraid to say that not much progress has happened with his feeding. Still no suckle reflex, and I'm tipping milk into his mouth hourly just to be sure he has something nourishing keeping him alive.
Every time I went to feed him he had made his way into the paddock with the ewes and lambs and was wandering around trying to find his mum. It was easy enough to pick him out, he is so thin, and was easy to catch and feed him, so in the end I left him out there because the weather was fine and he was happiest with the ewes. I observed him walking to each ewe, trying to suckle her sneakily when she wasn't looking and when her own lamb was suckling. This little bloke sure is streetwise. I suspect he's been keeping himself alive by doing this at his previous home.
Tonight I've brought him in to be with the other bottle lambs in the safety of their lamb shed, and will continue with feeding him as best I can for as long as he stays alive, or decides to give in and suckle from the bottle.
There will be no night time feeds though...I've had a stern talk to myself about toughening up, but I do take this task of lamb raising very seriously and will always put in the extra effort to ensure I can survive a weak animal. An early night, sleeping all night until early morning will be much appreciated tonight though.

There were no eggs to put out for sale in the Farmgate shop all of last week while Brian saved enough eggs to put into the ninety egg incubator. The guest room has been commandeered as the hatchery, so there will be no room at the Inn if guests turn up during the next three weeks.
There are twenty five Australorp eggs for laying hen replacement birds, (any roosters hatched will be eaten of course) and sixty five Cornish Game eggs for meat birds for the table.


While cleaning out a cupboard I found our photo album with some photos of when we first purchased in May 2004.

And a recent pic.


Monday, 7 August 2017

Update

Six lambs to bottle feed were definitely enough, but when we got another phone call yesterday evening, it was impossible to say no to another one.  While Brian drove off to meet the farmer and fetch the baby I prepared a colostrum mix that I feed to all new lambs, and started getting things ready for a new born. On his way home, Brian phoned to let me know that the lamb is a few weeks old, one of twins, and had not been getting his share of the mother's milk.

It's difficult to estimate his age, but comparing him to some of our lambs, we think he could be three weeks old, and in a very bad way. I have never seen a lamb in this condition before, dehydrated and severely malnourished, so it is quite a challenge.
As soon as Brian had brought him into the kitchen I gave him Arnica in pillule form, my favorite remedy for shock.
Even though he is older, and would have had his mother's colostrum soon after his birth, I fed him the health boosting colostrum mixture anyway.

My Colostrum Mix for Lambs
1 egg yolk
1 small dessertspoon of Cod Liver Oil
2 cups of cow's milk or lamb's milk replacement
Mix well, heat to body temperature, feed through a teat if the lamb will suckle, or a syringe if the lamb will not suckle.

We kept him in front of the wood stove and I got up to feed him twice during the night. The biggest challenge with this one is his age, he was wild, unused to humans, and although he is swallowing some milk, he is refusing to suckle the teat. I'm using all kinds of contortion yoga positions to hold him and carefully position the teat in his mouth so the milk will trickle in.
**Be careful when doing this though; if the milk goes into the wind pipe and into the lungs, the animal will contract pneumonia and die.
 When the rain stopped falling this afternoon I took him out to the paddock to meet the other lambs and he started gobbling grass like he was starving.


Friday, 4 August 2017

And then there were six......Lambs

First there was Oliver, otherwise known as Lambie, who was suffering an identity crisis, thinking he was a dog or a chicken. So I advertised my desire to take on some more orphaned lambs so he would have company and learn about being a sheep.
The two little Merinos arrived in time to be featured in this blog post and then a few more arrived.

And then there were four.

And another one, plus Lambie, makes six. They are all named of course. Gavin, Coco, Tex, Carrie and Peewee.

Our local paper caught on and thought it worthy of a feature. News travels fast in the country!

A mother's work is never done.

Feeding time.. one lamb on two feeds, some on five feeds and one on seven feeds... per day! (and through the night)

 Peewee spent two nights in front of the kitchen stove.

The towels were draped so he didn't burn himself on the hot oven doors, and a variety of furniture made up a little temporary yard for him. Meg just wanted to 'round him up'.
They're all doing well, but I'm starting to feel the exhaustion setting in, so I can barely put three (human) words together today. If I could speak to you in sheep lingo, that would be a different matter. 
In exciting news, I was fortunate to be asked by Grass Roots magazine to write about -you guessed it- the natural and bio-dynamic care of sheep!  The magazine is in the shops now.

And now it's time to warm up their milk bottles again!


Friday, 14 July 2017

Procrastibaking


I should be filling out these Taxation forms but suddenly, baking biscuits for the Farmgate shop and darning socks is far more urgent.... and entertaining!

Procrasti-darning

I'm retired now, so I don't need to go to the accountant this year to have my tax return done. I have not earned enough money to pay any tax, and we no longer own an investment property that we rent out. The sale of them occurred a couple of years ago, so there is nothing complicated about my financial affairs this year.
 At my last visit to my accountant (last year),  he advised that all I need to do this year is to claim my Franking Credits from my small share portfolio. He kindly showed me how it can be done without seeing him and paying (a small fortune) for his time.
Just lately I've spoken to a couple of friends who did not know this.  They were unaware that we can claim back the credits that were subtracted from our dividend payments though the previous year, so I thought I'd share it with you today.
There may be lots of folk who have money sitting there at the ATO that they didn't know about.
It's simple, if I can do it, so can you.
I spent a few minutes .... OK an hour.!!  sorting through my different dividend statements, and wrote on a sheet of paper for each Share holding so I can add them up and write it easily on the forms provided.

eg.  ** Example only**   Argo      franked amount $123.45
                                                       franking credit    $12.34
 
                                         Telstra   franked amount  $123.45
                                                       franking credit    $12.34

             and so on until all of the shares were listed.

Then I downloaded the forms using this site;

Refund of Franking Credits Instructions and Application for Individuals 2017
 
This site has all the information we need about Franking Credits and how to claim. There's a FAQ section there as well that is very helpful. eg,

"Can I claim franking credits from previous years?

It is not too late to claim a refund of franking credits you received in the 2001 to 2016 income years. If you have not already claimed these credits, go to ato.gov.au/onlineordering and order a Refund of franking credits application and instructions (NAT 4105) for the relevant years. You can only lodge these refund applications for previous years by post."

 I printed all the forms on my printer because I prefer to write it on paper, make a copy for my records, and post the completed application away to the Australian Taxation Office, rather than spend an hour (or more) doing it on-line, only to discover, right at the end that I've done something wrong and I either lose the entire thing, or it takes up so much time getting it right.
The last time I tried to complete an application for something on line, I lost it all at the end. I was so frustrated! Two hours of my life that I'm never getting back! I threw a knife at the door! The little mark is still there to remind me.  :-/
 If you prefer, it can be lodged by phone, the phone number is listed on the front page, and I'm pretty sure it could be done on-line, but I'm not going there. Just saying!
My forms and instructions are still sitting there on the table because I'm procrasti-baking and procrasti-darning!
Oh... and when I've finished baking and darning, there are those spider webs that need vacuuming off the ceilings, but I'll get my Tax stuff done soon, I promise!

What about you? What are your procrastinating decoys?










Tuesday, 11 July 2017

Sugar Free Raspberry Jam

 Sugar free Raspberry Jam

Lately I've noticed there's much more attention in the media about diet and ways of eating.
Low Carb High Fat (LCHF), Banting, Paleo, Juice Fasting, 5 & 2, and the list goes on.
I like to keep up with new findings about foods and the way different food groups affect us as individuals. The right food or diet for one person is not necessarily going to agree with the next person, but there is so much information there for us so that we can make our own decisions.
What we were brought up to believe back in the day, is often the opposite of what we know now. New research into food and diet has revolutionized our health and self care,  the food industry and our personal beliefs.
For the past few weeks I haven't been eating wheat or any type of sugar, and I've cut back on my carbohydrate intake.
I definitely feel some benefits; clearer in my thinking, and I don't get tired after lunch like I used to when I ate cereal or breads for breakfast or lunch.
"Intermittent fasting" is also a thing. Who knew? Hooray! I don't need to feel the guilt of skipping breakfast any more.
I'm not going into all these 'diets' because others are doing that much better than I can, and anyone with access to Google can study them if interested.
It is my personal goal to continue through this life, into my old age, without the need for pharmaceutical drugs by using diet as my medicine. We see people who make the effort to nourish their body and soul with good food and positive thoughts and actions, but unfortunately, those folks are not the norm any more.  Obesity, ill health and addiction to popping a pill is becoming more visible in our modern western society and is drawing heavily on the health care systems.

Wheat and sugar free one pot dinner (and lunch next day)
 
I don't intend to live without wheat for ever. After a couple of months of giving my body a rest from it I'll start using Spelt flour and organic wheat that I grind in my flour grinder. Learning about the way conventional wheat is grown with all the chemicals and sprays, has completely put me off the ordinary flour available in the supermarket.
Natural sugars in very small amounts will also appear in my diet after another few weeks.               eg, Rapadura sugar, coconut sugar, rice malt syrup, maple syrup and honey, but I really don't think I'll go back to consuming refined sugar again.
Sugar creeps it's way into our foods, a little bit here and there, although we might think that we don't use much sugar at all.
In this house we don't drink sugary drinks or fruit juices, and don't buy ready made foods, but now that I've completely cut out sugar I can see that we were eating more than we realised.
I can't believe that at my ripe old age, and as a moderately reasonable cook, I didn't know that apples can be stewed or poached without ANY sugar at all and still taste sweet. Ha! That was a light bulb moment!
These restrictions have not been at all difficult to deal with, adapting simple 'made from scratch' recipes  and good old Google with vast information and recipes available at our fingertips.
On the first day of the new "deprivations" I thought I would need a treat with my afternoon tea so I made a coconut flour muffin. It cooked in ten minutes and if I closed my eyes and stood on one leg I could almost imagine that it was a scone or a bread roll. But it was missing jam, so I made some.

Sugar free Raspberry Jam (use any berries)
1 large or 2 small apples, peeled and sliced. Cook in a small saucepan with 1/3 cup water until mushy.
Add 1 cup of raspberries (I've still got lots in the freezer from our last harvest)
Gently simmer, stirring frequently until is reduces and slightly darkens in colour. This could take approximately 20 - 30mins.
*Optional- add Stevia sweetener (Natvia) to taste.. I didn't feel the need to sweeten it though.
Spoon into a jar and store in the fridge.

The weird thing about this way of eating is that I don't get hungry at all so that was my first and last Coconut flour muffin. I simply can not fit all that food into my day, but the jam is lovely as a sweet treat desert on a 'Banana and egg flourless pancake'  or with baked apples, or a baked egg custard, if a treat is really what I think I need.

How about you? Have you made discoveries about your diet and how it affects the way you feel?









Thursday, 6 July 2017

Lambing Season


Lambing season is upon us, with these twins the first to be born last Thursday.

Those readers who follow my Facebook or Instagram pages daily will be aware of our battle to outwit the foxes who's numbers have become out of control in recent years. 
Without these two beautiful creatures, I think we would not have many live lambs. I love to watch them carefully checking on the new lambs, playing a large part in nurturing the flock, young and old.
While I was out checking the flock one morning, the alpacas were watching me curiously when suddenly, their attention turned to the top of the hill, towards the boundary fence where a ewe had recently birthed a new lamb. They called loudly in their donkey like fashion of communicating danger, and ran towards the fence. Well, one ran while the other stood guard with the flock, as is their habit of teamwork.
There on the hill, a fox glided with stealth towards the new lamb and mother, and stopped to sit in a clump of grass just out of my sight.
As luck happened it was one of those rare occasions that I carried my phone, so I called Brian who was down at the house. He grabbed his gun from the securely locked gun safe, and bullets from a securely locked ammunition safe in a different location to the gun safe (author raises eyes and sighs whilst writing this) and high tailed it up to the hill towards me.
I indicated to him where I last saw the fox, and as he walked along the fence line, looking in the grass, the fox moved. Brian took aim, but as I was positioned on the other side of the fox he didn't get a shot until the fox had ran a small distance through the fence. We then realised that he had grabbed the single bullet gun instead of the 12 gauge which sends out pellets over a small radius, so the fox got away.  This time!!
The cheek of the thing. To blatantly attempt to attack a lamb in broad daylight, and in the presence of a very visible, orange clothed human!

We purchased two fox lights three years ago, and decided to buy another one last week after the fox episode. When Brian went to our local farming supplies outlet there was only one light left in stock. Another farmer had just purchased ten of them an hour before!

This one is solar powered and more expensive at $139, but saving on the cost of replacement batteries each year, brings it in line with the other battery powered lights.
When factoring in the cost of just one lamb sold at market, currently an average price of $150,  this is a reasonable price to pay for a devise that we believe helps reduce the number of fox attacks on our lambs.
(We have no affiliate connection to the makers or suppliers of this product.)
With three of these strategically placed  lights blinking randomly around the paddock I'm reminded of my disco days back in the 70's. ;)

Lamby, the bottle fed lamb brought to us in early June, is growing like a mushroom. At six weeks old he is drinking just three bottles a day, no night feeds. However, he doesn't know he's a sheep and will NOT stay with the mob in the paddock when I take him in with me to do my rounds.
He still spends his nights safely locked in the poultry shed with the hens, out of harms way from marauding foxes. His days are spent in a grassy paddock near to the house, close enough that I can pop out to feed him his three bottles each day, but far enough away that he doesn't hear my voice and  call out to me every five minutes.
In an effort to find him a lamb companion I put out a request on our local Barossa Online Classifieds Facebook Page
 "It's LAMBING season, so to all sheep owners out there, who find yourself with any ORPHAN lambs and you don't want the job of bottle raising them (time consuming & expensive) I will collect them from you and raise them. I will take all breeds of WOOL sheep only. Sorry, I can't take any of the wool shedding breeds as their wool will contaminate our Merino wool at shearing time. Message me at any time & I'll pick up your orphans ASAP. 🐑🐑🍼🍼 Pls share or pass onto anyone who has lambs. Some folks don't see Facebook so they can text me on 0473493413 "

 The advertisement was successful..! And these two little cuties were delivered to me yesterday all dressed up in their little waterproof jackets.
They came from a large farm of more than 1000 Merino ewes. The kind farmer and his daughter pick up the lambs on their property that have lost contact with their mothers. and feed them all with an automated feeder. These two would not drink from the feeder unaided, so they were being fed with a bottle. As there is little time for bottle feeding lambs, five times a day, on these big farms I was thrilled to receive them.  :)
So now my days revolve around feeding babies at all different times of the day and night. 


After three days of confinement in the safety of the enclosed calf yard, Poppy was allowed into the paddock with Lavender.
The first day was spent getting to know  each other in a small paddock separated from Mulga Bill. 
He (Mulga Bill) is such a big boy, and looks so mean, that I was hesitant to let him near the calf too soon, but on the following day the calf went in with them both, and Mulga shows such tenderness towards tiny Poppy.

OK it's time to heat milk and fill bottles... again..!!
Cheers, and thanks for dropping in.

Thursday, 29 June 2017

Poppy

 Introducing Poppy.

It's time to start thinking about training up another house cow to replace Lavender when the time comes. We're very happy with Lavender's breed - Jersey (dairy breed) crossed with Murray Grey (beef breed) - so I ordered a calf from the same breeder just as soon as we knew she (Lavender) was well again. 
As you know, she had been Love sick and we held off on our plans until we knew she was well enough to supply milk for the next four months, for the calf.
When the dairy owner phoned us with the news that a heifer had been born, we arranged to collect her when she was five days old. I'm not sure, but I think she was with her mother for two or three days, before being taken away and tied up in a small enclosure where she wasn't able to walk around much. So I'm hoping she had her mother's colostrum for those first days.
There were two heifers to choose from and when we checked their little teats, the other heifer had six little teats. That would be a problem, so I'm really glad we checked that important detail.
I discreetly slipped the tiny  homeopathic Arnica pillule (against shock) into her mouth as she was suckling my fingers, and before we lifted her into the calf carrying cage on the back of the ute.
(Some conventional farmers think I'm a little bit strange with my ideas of bio-dynamics, homeopathics and organics. Each person has their own ideas and I would never push our way of life and our beliefs onto anyone else unless they asked me about it, or wanted advice.)
It was early afternoon when we got her home and settled her into the small calf shelter in our calf yard. She had been fed in the morning, but she looked very thin and dehydrated so I mixed up a litre of my home made electrolyte drink to hydrate and settle her.
1 teaspoon salt, 1 teaspoon honey or sugar, dissolved in 1 litre of warm water.
In some of my previous posts I have detailed how important it is not to over feed new calves, so the electrolyte drink is a perfect way to settle a new 'brought in' calf without overloading its developing belly.
In the evening she had 3/4 litre of fresh milk watered down to make it up to 2 litres.
That's my general DAY 1 treatment for brought in calves unless they have other issues like visible diarrhea. In which case I would put 2 teaspoons of garlic water into the electrolyte mix, and dilute the next feed of  half milk and half water to make 2 litres.
For the first couple of nights I like to confine a new calf to the small shed, with some dry straw to lay on. One of the reasons, apart from keeping her warm and dry,  is so that I can easily find and inspect her new fresh droppings. For this first few weeks I'll be constantly on the lookout for changes to her poo; colour, smell and texture. I'll be obsessed with poo!!

The following morning, after checking her poo, she drank her first proper feed of 2 litres of fresh milk from the calf feeder.  Then I opened the gate and let her follow me out and into the calf yard.

She discovered she had legs.... and they could move..... fast!   They could kick up in the air too. It was such fun to run from her adopted Mum (me) to the end of the yard and back again.


"This running caper is so much fun and I feel so clever. Look out Mum, here I come!"

In the next few days I'll start training her with a halter to lead, tie up, and put her head into the (small training) milking bales. If I do this now while she is small, she will respond easily, with no stress, and will be a valuable and well mannered house cow in the future.
No doubt you will see many posts about Poppy's progress in the coming months.

*The methods I use are what I have researched and learned, though trial and error in some cases, during my years of cow ownership and calf raising. I am in no way advocating that this is the only correct way, but it's what has worked for me. A lot of my actions are ruled by my gut feeling; that and constant searching for alternative and natural ways of animal health and maintenance.
By sharing what I have learned, I may be of help to other owners and animals to minimise ill health and suffering.



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